My three words for 2018

Every year feels as though the last twelve months has raced by more quickly and frantically than the last and 2017 has been no exception! My role at PepsiCo has felt all-consuming at times but has meant I have been very busy but also learned so much about many things at the same time. Unfortunately this has meant that my personal bog writing and development has taken a back seat however I’m confident I’m developing many other skills in my day job whilst I have set aside plans to ensure my writing and education continues in 2018.

As I look forward to 2018 it’s another opportunity to outline three words to shape the year ahead, an annual tradition inspired by Chris Brogan and a practice I always find incredibly useful and motivating as an alternative to the standard New Year traditions that never quite work!

Before I outline my three words for 2018, here is my assessment of my three words from 2017:


Developing a bias for action is still a work in progress for me but something I have worked on consciously in 2017. I still believe I take more time than necessary to make a decision and it’s something I will continue to work in 2018 (and beyond), however inspired by entrepreneurs and big business leaders such as Jeff Bezos who talk about the importance of making decisions without being 100% sure, I have pushed myself to lead initiatives and instigate action over the last year.


Innovating within a large corporate environment can be difficult due to the natural hierarchies and bureaucracies that form within big businesses. Nevertheless I’ve ensured throughout 2017 that I’ve always asked the question “what could we do differently?” to push the boundaries of the content and campaigns we’re creating as well as the ways of working with different teams and agencies.


I found ‘Challenge’ quite difficult to accomplish in 2017, mainly due to the sheer amount of activities and priorities to juggle both personally and professionally. It’s been tricky to prioritise as effectively as I’d like sometimes however last year was about establishing my role as a digital leader at PepsiCo and I feel I accomplished a lot in this area by dedicating the vast majority of my time and energy to my job. This has come at the expense of my personal projects and goals although this is something I’m looking to tackle in new ways in 2018!


As always the three words from previous years including 2017 will always be relevant and require further work, however my three new words for 2018 to shape my focus for the year ahead are:


In 2012 I talked about confidence and building and maintaining confidence is an area I’m always working on. But related to confidence is the feeling of belonging and being a part of an organisation’s set up and culture.

Joining a big, established company can be daunting at first and at times I’ve suffered from impostor syndrome. But in 2018 I’m determined to feel, think and act as though I truly belong in the role I’ve now occupied for nearly 18 months and mentally fall back on all the expertise and experience I’ve built up over my career.


Having a clear opinion and point of view is something I’d like to develop and use to build my confidence and belonging in 2018. I’ve always held a point of view on everything from sport to politics, business and marketing but I believe this is something I can shape and channel more effectively.

Nilofer Merchant summed this up really well in a post from back in 2013:

“To have a point of view is to know why you’re there, to be able to signal your purpose and organizing principle so clearly that the “reader knows”, even before he or she dives into the details. It attracts talent, it creates allies, and it focuses the work… when you have point of view about what matters to you and why, your chances of “changing the world” rise exponentially”


Over the last few months I’ve been attempting to build my interest and understanding in subjects beyond business and marketing, including science and mathematics, areas I don’t directly use in my day-to-day work but something I believe important for developing my broader education.

Whilst I think having an opinion is important, it shouldn’t be set in stone and must always be open to debate and interrogation. The formulation and testing of a hypothesis is part of the scientific method, the approach scientists use when attempting to understand and test ideas about natural phenomena. Scientists are not driven by dogma and neither should any professional, including marketing. So in 2018 I want to broaden my mind further, test assumptions and discover new ideas and ways of working.

My three words for 2017

It’s been fascinating to look back on 2016. Many commentators would have us believe it was a bad year, what with so many celebrity deaths, political upheaval and widespread terrorism. However as rocky as it was at times, I also believe 2016 had a lot of positives, too. The Rio Olympics was a great success (particularly for Team GB!), the world of science experienced new breakthroughs and on a personal note I started a new job!

So as I look forward to the new year ahead I’ve once again thought about three words that will shape and guide my journey throughout 2017. Inspired by Chris Brogan, I always find this annual practice to be a challenging but fun exercise in really making me think about where my priorities and focus should be in my professional and personal life.

Before I outline my three words for 2017, it’s worth reviewing my three words for 2016 and how I got on:


I still struggle with the more limited amount of time in my life since I became a father. Juggling parenthood with a full-time job can be difficult at times but as I expected it’s forced me to be much more disciplined with how I spend my time.

Instead of watching too much TV or reading ‘light-weight’ articles or blog posts, I’ve focused on reading more long-form content from experts, books I hope will expand my mind and quality TV that is really worth it (although there’s nothing wrong with the odd bit of light-entertainment!).


Gaining more knowledge and a better understanding of the world is a never-ending process but something I enjoy tackling. I wanted to challenge myself in 2016 to build on my core skills and educate myself on new topics and areas of interest.

Starting work at PepsiCo has thrown me into the world of FMCG which has forced me to learn about the industry very quickly whilst working with some of the best minds in the business. On top of this I’ve continued to read about subjects beyond the world of marketing, including psychology, statistics and entrepreneurship, as well as start my first fiction book since summer 2014!


Last year I talked about having the patience to wait for the career decisions I’ve made over the years to pay off. Whilst at times I doubted myself, I always had the confidence that I’ve made decisions for the right reasons – to gain critical expertise, work with new and interesting companies and learn from different people.

Starting at PepsiCo was something I wouldn’t have imagined possible a few years ago. However I always felt I had the knowledge, drive and skills to make it and I now have an amazing opportunity to test my mettle in a very faced-paced industry with an organisation that is constantly challenging its employees to go one step further and better than the competition.


My three words for 2016 are still relevant and I will refer back to them over the year. However it’s right that I select three new words for 2017 to help me focus on what matters most for the year ahead:


I’m someone who naturally likes to stop, think and reflect. I enjoy learning new things, processing information and finding ways to implement this in the right way. I can’t change who I am however I recognise that I do have to adapt and learn to act when it matters.

Sometimes there isn’t the time to ruminate and thrash – a decision needs to be made to get the ball rolling and start making progress. Whilst I believe that hastiness is not an option, I do believe that a balance between weighing up the options and making a decision in good time is right in order to take advantage of new opportunities. As Facebook say: “Done is better than perfect”!


The world is a noisy place and attention is at a premium. The only way to make an impact is to stand out and find new ways to get your message heard, otherwise you’ll be lost amongst the clutter (email, social media, TV etc.).

Finding a new way to be heard isn’t easy but it involves experimenting and looking for innovations. This is something I’d like to practice professionally, both with my colleagues (e.g. to demonstrate and educate them on the value of digital marketing) and in the work I do (e.g. innovative campaigns to build the brand). However I’d also like to innovate outside work, for example with my blog, fitness and personal education. What can I do differently to stand out, drive change and add value?


In order to develop myself personally and professionally I need to challenge myself to go further. I don’t mean working more hours, exercising excessively or putting myself under undue stress. Building on Prioritise from 2016 and Innovate for 2017, Challenge is about choosing the right projects and priorities to really make them count.

I’d like to challenge myself to inspire people to think about their work in new ways, to put the things I learn into practice and to make meaningful changes inside and outside of work. I’d also like to challenge myself to learn something new but also to stop and reflect on my achievements instead of getting too bogged down in the nearest and next priority.

Developing a test and learn programme

As part of any digital transformation agenda, the ability the test and learn gives businesses the opportunity to experiment, iterate and grow skills and competences throughout the organisation. For digital marketers, this opportunity is becoming increasingly important as technology continues to advance and larger companies face new and emerging threats from more nimble, innovative competitors.

To drive meaningful digital transformation at scale, businesses must therefore be open to the adoption of a test and learn culture, which will enable marketers to optimise digital media activation, create first-class digital experiences and develop learning across the organisation. Much of this will be dependent on each organisation’s stage in the digital transformation journey:


Three big digital trends

The importance of developing a test and learn culture is reflected in the numerous digital trends impacting businesses today. However, I’d like to highlight three that I believe are particularly significant and should influence test and learn planning for digital marketers across all types of businesses:

‘Big data’ has grown up

The concept of ‘big data’ has been a familiar theme within the marketing world for at least the last five years, and yet with some predicting that 2016 would be the ‘year of the customer’ there has been an increased emphasis on customer-centric marketing, meaning data must be used intelligently to drive results.


Advanced analytics, better consumer profiles and the right market and customer insights are becoming essential in tying marketing campaigns together to create more integrated experiences.

Mobile continues to dominate


Source: Benedict Evans, 2016

More than half of our waking time is spent on media and much of that time is now consumed on mobile devices. Mobile is an increasingly ubiquitous presence in our lives (49% of Millennials check their phones within 5 minutes of waking up in the morning!) – we’re now in a truly ‘mobile-first’ world.

As with big data, mobile advertising has come of age:

  • Mobile accounts for over a half of ecommerce traffic and a third of sales
  • More than half of Facebook’s base is mobile-only
  • App usage (90% of time) dominates browsers in mobile usage

As Benedict Evans from venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz demonstrated last year, ‘mobile’ no longer means mobile – consumers regularly consume media on mobile devices more within the home than outside, highlighting the importance of developing a first-class mobile customer experience.

‘Content shock’ is real


Source: business2community

Content shock’ (coined by Mark Schaefer in 2014), is the result of consumers rejecting brand content due to exponentially increasing volumes intersecting our limited consumption capacity. Basically, people are fed up of poor quality content and are finding ways to filter this out so they can consume what really matters to them.

We can see examples of content shock in Facebook’s decision to dramatically reduce organic reach and the continuing rise of adblocking across all device types:


Source: KPCB, 2016

The average person is exposed to over 400 messages a day. Attention is at a premium and brands must respond accordingly by producing genuinely high quality, relevant content to earn this increasingly precious commodity.

Introducing a test and learn approach

Every test and learn programme will differ based on each business’s appetite to testing and their use of digital marketing in general. However one approach I’m currently adopting takes into account two aspects:

1. Continuous improvements – running trials to optimise day-to-day activations)
2. ‘Big bets’ – to gain operational lessons and strategic insight to apply across the business


According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter writing in HBR in 2006, successful innovators use an ‘innovation pyramid’, with several big bets at the top that get most of the investment; a portfolio of promising mid-range ideas in test stage; and a broad base of early stage ideas or incremental innovations. This concept allows ideas and influence to flow up or down the pyramid.

For the purpose of this post, I thought I’d bring this approach to life by providing examples of two areas of continuous improvements and one ‘big bet’ to demonstrate:

  1. a) how these areas relate to the digital trends highlighted earlier in the post
  2. b) how these areas could fit into a digital test and learn programme

The following examples are just a sample of many others that could be used and I’ve tried to keep these fairly broad so they can be applied to different businesses, small and large, across B2C and B2B.

Two areas of continuous improvement

Continuos improvements will involve the type of tests that can be run on a day-to-day basis and don’t necessarily require huge levels of investment.

1. Mobile optimisation

Although 2016 cannot be regarded as ‘the year of mobile’ (that came and went at least two years ago!), mobile strategies are maturing and it is essential that brands take a ‘mobile-first’ approach to meet consumer expectations. Mobile cannot be a less-than-web experience – it has to be the experience.

Take advantage of micro-moments


Source: Google, 2014

Mobile has fundamentally changed consumer behaviour and as consumers we think, search and buy differently from five years ago. Mobile gives marketers the opportunity to take advantage of what Google refers to as ‘micro-moments’, those intent-rich moments where decisions are made and preferences shaped.

Test and learn opportunity:

Mobile has fractured the consumer journey into hundreds of real-time, intent-driven micro-moments. Consumers are more loyal to their need rather than a brand so it’s important to test being present at the right moments, e.g.:

  • Deliver targeted advertising during key events
  • Prompt potential consumers ‘in-store’ with targeted promotions
  • Provide help and guidance when it’s needed, e.g. specific searches on YouTube or Google

Reach consumers where they’re spending their time


Source: KPCB, 2016

One of the insights that stood out for me from KPCB’s 2016 internet trends was that advertising currently remains over-indexed to legacy media despite the rapid increase in mobile usage.

Test and learn opportunity:

There is an opportunity to increase ad spend in mobile channels to reach consumers where they appear to be spending most of their time. This will not only improve ad performance but potentially provide a competitive advantage over slower-moving rivals who have failed to respond to this trend.

Establish a presence across multiple platforms


Source: Benedict Evans, 2016

Mobile has led to an ‘unbundling’ of the web. We now consume content across browsers and apps, although the trend is moving more and more towards native apps which could signal the death of the hyperlink.

A mobile-first approach means that mobile must be the ultimate experience, with the web becoming merely an add-on (a complete 180° shift from where this was before).

Test and learn opportunity:

Establish a presence across multiple platforms, including responsive/ adaptive design that works across desktop and mobile, as well as native mobile apps. How is your audience consuming mobile content? What channels and platforms work for them? Where are the optimisation opportunities? Mobile apps don’t work for everyone but if there is an opportunity to test without too much risk it may be worth looking into.

2. Measurement and analytics


Effective analysis and insight should underpin everything we work on as digital marketers. Without a thorough understanding of what is and isn’t performing, you will not have the right actionable insights to make correct decisions.

Establish a measurement framework

A measurement framework/ model is a way to structure your thinking, prioritise goals and organise the KPIs and metrics you’ll use to measure performance.

Avinash Kaushik is a leading thought leader on this subject and as he explains:

“The root cause of failure in most digital marketing campaigns is not the lack of creativity in the banner ad or TV spot or the sexiness of the website. It is not even (often) the people involved. It is quite simply the lack of structured thinking about what the real purpose of the campaign is and a lack of an objective set of measures with which to identify success or failure”.

Test and learn opportunity:

Before jumping into a digital campaign or project, consider creating a measurement framework to structure how all of the following work together:

  • Business objectives
  • Macro and micro goals
  • Key performance indicators (KPIs)
  • Targets
  • Segments

The example above shows how goals, KPIs and segments are flow from the high-level business objectives that have been set out. The key is to understand how this framework might apply to your business and test a similar approach.

Run regular A/B testing to improve relevance


A/B or multivariate testing should form a key part of your ongoing test and learn programme. By experimenting with different types of content versus a current experience across web pages, social channels and/ or apps, you’ll be able to more accurately determine which variant performs better for a given conversion or goal.

Using the data from A/B testing removes guesswork and subjectivity, giving you the confidence to make more informed, data-driven decisions.

Test and learn opportunity:

A/B testing doesn’t have to be a complex or expensive process. Start small and experiment using particular pieces of content that have generated discussion or debate internally.

If you’re testing something more experimental or risky, take ‘controlled risks’ by showing the new content to only a small proportion of the audience (e.g. 10% of traffic). As you build an understanding and confidence in your hypothesis you can begin to increase the scope of your testing ‘landscape’.

One big bet

‘Big bets’ can be anything that has the potential to enhance or optimise the organisation across multiple levels. Unlike the more operational continuous improvements highlighted above, ‘big bets’ often require more planning and investment, but if successful have the potential to future-proof a business.

Dynamic content and personalisation

For this post I’ve chosen to look at dynamic content and personlisation as an example of a ‘big bet’. This is closely linked to all three of the trends highlighted at the start of the post (data, mobile and ‘content shock’) and as I’ve tried to do throughout the post, this idea can apply to large and small businesses alike.

Optimise content to drive action

The essence of personalisation is about using content that is most relevant to the audience in order to generate higher engagement and conversion. One method of doing this is to use dynamic content, essentially showing the same web page to two people but serving different content within that page based on what we know about them:


Test and learn opportunity:

First and third-party data can be used to create more relevant and compelling experiences, and iterative platform testing can be used with or alongside A/B testing tools to learn about what is/ isn’t working. Take the time to find out what type and quality of data you have and run small tests initially to optimise content for different audience groups.

Create personal video and TV experiences


Source: Google/ DoubleClick, 2016

The way people consume content has fundamentally changed. Whilst ten years ago many of us would watch a show live on one television in a living room, the use of many different devices and streaming services such as Netflix mean that we now watch TV shows across a variety of media and it’s therefore become increasingly difficult to reach audiences with traditional methods of advertising.

However, this challenge has given brands a new opportunity: to develop personalised advertising strategies.

The concept of addressable TV advertising enables brands to reach fragmented, time-shifted audiences and to show different ads to different households who are all watching the same programme.

Test and learn opportunity:

Whilst TV is not a marketing channel open to everyone, and the nascent technology involved in addressable advertising has a number of challenges (including effective measurement and achieving reliability at scale), I wanted to include this example to demonstrate how advertising can be smarter through the use of data.

The emergence of addressable advertising may even give smaller businesses the opportunity to experiment with TV advertising in a way that they couldn’t before. Businesses no longer have to book media to reach millions of people. Instead spots can be bought to target specific groups of people watching certain types of programming at certain times of the day.

Deliver tailored advertising with programmatic


Source: Google, 2016

A core goal for marketers should be about producing content and communications that matter to the audience. Programmatic marketing is something we’ve covered previously, but in a nutshell it’s about enabling brands to be responsive to their audience in real-time, with highly relevant messaging and creativity. The objective is to tailor messages to the right person, at the right moment, in the right context.

Test and learn opportunity:

Depending on device, location and weather, content can be delivered programmatically to different audiences and this is something that can be tested across different campaigns.

Google offers an excellent guide to getting started with programmatic marketing, with a useful checklist of key steps:

1. Organise audience insights
2. Design compelling creative
3. Execute with integrated technology
4. Reach audiences across screens
5. Measure the impact


With so many major trends beginning to take shape and impact the work we do as marketers, we must look to adapt and find the best ways to take advantage of these changes.

Whilst it would be both unwise and costly to carry out tests for every trend that arises, an effective test and learn programme can enable us to carry out tactical and strategic experiments to build learnings and help us understand what works for our business.

Harnessing the power of behavioural economics


Consider the following puzzle:

A bat and ball cost £1.10.
The bat costs one pound more than the ball.
How much does the ball cost?

The number that many people arrive at is 10p, dividing up £1.10 neatly into £1 and 10 pence. However, the correct answer is 5p (if the ball costs 10p then the total cost will be £1.20 – 10p for the ball and £1.10 for the bat).

Now consider another question:

How many animals of each kind did Moses take into the ark?

This question is commonly referred to as the ‘Moses Illusion’. Moses took no animals into the ark; Noah did.

The incorrect answers many people give to these questions offers just a glimpse into the overwhelming evidence that indicates that one of the underlying assumptions of social science, that humans are generally rational and their thinking normally sound, is flawed.

Many of us believe that we know how our mind works, which often consists of one conscious thought leading in an orderly way to another. However, according to the social psychologist Daniel Kahneman, most impressions and thoughts arise in our conscious experience without knowing how they got there. Therefore, the mental processes that produces impressions, intuitions and many decisions goes on in silence in our minds.

The judgements, choices and decisions we make are therefore not always in our complete control. Sometimes we make decisions in the blink of an eye, whilst on other occasions we follow the crowd or co-operate rather than compete. Recent studies have suggested that over 90% of our decision-making takes place in the subconscious mind.

The mental shortcuts people use to form judgments and make decisions are called heuristics and whilst they work under most circumstances, they can lead to systematic errors known as cognitive biases. The theories of heuristics and biases have been used widely and productively in many fields, including government policy, legal judgement, medical diagnosis and finance. However, for a number of years marketers have been experimenting with behavioural science and economics to better understand and change consumer behaviour.

Introducing behavioural economics

The concept of behavioural economics has grown in popularity and prominence over the last decade. Books including Daniel Kahneman’s ‘Thinking, Fast and Slow’ and Richard Thaler and Cass Senstein’s ‘Nudge’ have captured the public’s imagination.

Many of the theories of behavioural economics can be applied to marketing in a different ways. Ogilvy have even established a specialist behavioural economics practice called Ogilvy Change which employs ‘Choice Architects’ “to investigate and apply principles from cognitive psychology, social psychology and behavioural science to create measurable behaviour change in the real world”.

5 top nudges

Choice architecture is the practice of designing different ways in which choices can be presented to consumers to ‘nudge’ or steer them towards better decision-making. As mentioned above, many of principles choice architects apply have worked in other fields so we thought we’d pick out five nudges, along with examples, that can be applied within a digital marketing context:


What is it?

This is based on the theory that people tend to value things more highly when they believe they are scarce.

Following the lead of many luxury good marketers, Apple, creates the illusion of scarcity to build up the hype of many of its products to fuel desirability and demand. The stories of limited supplies of iPhones and people queuing for days to get their hands on the latest model live long in the memory.

How is this applied in digital marketing?

Scarcity and urgency is a tactic that’s commonly used within eCommerce, using messages such as ‘limited availability’ or ‘only X left in stock’:


Using the fear of scarcity to drive demand and sales can be considered to be an unethical and manipulative tactic when used irresponsibly. Scarcity should therefore only ever be used in a transparent and positive way, for example by being honest about what stock is left and whether any more is likely to be made available.

The anchoring effect

What is it?

The value of something is often set by anchors or imprints in our minds, which we use as mental reference points that influence our decision-making. The anchors can be completely arbitrary and still have an impact.

Anchoring is particularly common in situations that involve negotiation. For example, when valuing a house, experiments have shown that the listing price, regardless of the ‘real’ value, can have a powerful effect on someone’s own perception of the value.

How is this applied in digital marketing?

In a digital marketing context, anchoring can be seen in the use of subscription plans:


In this example, we can see the different subscription options for Crazy Egg’s heatmap tracking software. There are two factors at play here:

  1. The ‘Pro’ plan is listed on the left where visitors are likely to see this first
  2. The ‘Pro’ plan is priced at $99, setting the anchor against which the value of all the other plans (including ‘Plus’, the ‘most popular’ plan) is compared.

Loss aversion

What is it?

We will often go to greater lengths to avoid the loss of something we already have rather than to gain something new. People can find it twice as painful to lose something they own in comparison to how enjoyable it was to acquire it in the first place.

How is this applied in digital marketing?


It’s no surprise that many companies, such as Netflix, Moz and Dropbox, offer free trials in order to leverage loss aversion.

By giving prospective customers the opportunity to use a product or service for free for a decent period of time, they begin to feel a sense of ownership. Once the trial period has expired, the thought of losing the product, plus the minimal effort it often takes to sign up and pay, means that many people are convinced to commit to a purchase.


What is it?

Years of societal convention have led us to place an often irrational trust in the judgment of experts, even if their judgements are not always correct or moral. A famous example of the obedience of authority is the Milgram Experiment, where 65% of people were prepared to administer a 450-volt electric shock to another person hidden from them just because a doctor told them it was OK.

How is this applied in digital marketing?

The practice of brand endorsement by well-known figures such as sports stars, musicians and other celebrities is a perfect example of how authority can be used to influence customers’ decision-making. Much of Nike’s success within the golfing arena is credited with their decision to associate themselves with Tiger Woods, who at the time was the best golfer in the world.

Digital marketers can use authority through the use of thought-leadership, content collaboration and expert analysis to build credibility. As a digital marketing thought leader, Click-Through Marketing utilise Dave Chaffey’s authority on a range of topics.

The paradox of choice

What is it?

Offering customers more choice is not always the best course of action. When we’re paralysed by too many options, the likelihood that we pick the ‘most suitable’ choice is reduced and we procrastinate for fear of making a bad decision. Therefore, when fewer options are presented, there is less chance of making a mistake and decisions are speeded up.

How is this applied in digital marketing?

From an eCommerce perspective, companies like Amazon, Etsy and House of Fraser implement effective filtering techniques to provide the most suitable choices to customers.

A good use of filtering to optimise relevant results can also be seen in this example from Lloyds:



The bank offers nine different credit cards although a consumer arriving at the site might be a little overwhelmed as to which to choose from. Filtering by the cards by different needs states, in this case Balance Transfer, Large Purchase, Everyday spending and Rewards helps to simplify the number of options and help the consumer choose the right option.

Social proofing/ herding

What is it?

The concept of ‘social proof’ was made famous 30 years ago by psychologist Robert Cialdini’s in his book Influence. Social proof describes our tendency to run with the herd and make decisions based on what those around us are doing. We often validate our choices on whether others were following a similar course of action, which is why books are marketed as ‘bestsellers’.

How is this applied in digital marketing?

There are many different ways to leverage social proof online and data from Smart Insights from 2014 indicates that there is a purchase uplift from tactics such as social sharing and reviews.

Ratings and reviews are an excellent way to aggregate sentiment from past purchasers and give prospective customers confidence in the products they’re browsing online. They’re particularly effective when sourced from a large population and managed by a third-party, such as this example from travel site On The Beach, which uses reviews from Trip Advisor:


Another popular social proof tactic uses numbers to convince people that a product or service is popular. Moz makes it very clear that their software is used by tens of thousands of companies:


And this popularity is backed up by massive following some of their guides are receiving which supports the authority they have built up in their field of expertise:


Closing thoughts

Many of the principles of behavioural economics can have a powerful and profound impact on consumer decision-making so it’s therefore essential that the nudges highlighted in this post, and the many others that haven’t been covered, are used ethically. There are examples of websites that use manipulative UX practices that exploit consumers’ cognitive biases and this will only ever erode the relationship between the consumer and the brand in the long run. When Richard Thaler signs copies of ‘Nudge’, he always writes “Nudge for good” next to his name and explains that nudging is like giving people GPS: “I get to put into the GPS where I want to go, but I don’t have to follow her instructions”.

Nevertheless, behavioural insights should be considered by digital marketers when crafting strategy as the practices we’ve covered illustrate how marketers can improve the content and overall user experience to improve consumer decision-making and provide better digital experiences.
Marketers can take inspiration from the public sector in how to nudge for good. The government utilised status quo bias, the theory that people prefer to carry on behaving as they have always done, for the UK workplace pensions scheme. Nest automatically enrols employees in a workplace pension yet gives them the opportunity to opt out, resulting in a greater take-up than if employees were required to opt in, which takes more time and effort. Through a subtle change in how the choice is presented, the output results in a win-win for everyone concerned.

Deliver results with anchor content

Screen Shot 2016-06-17 at 09.47.21

Content now forms an essential element of nearly everything we do as marketers. Planning, creating and distributing great quality content is not just the domain of content marketers; it covers email, advertising, CRM and just about anything else we’re involved in. Content excellence is now so crucial to how we communicate and gain traction with consumers that it’s become an important priority for many marketers in 2016 and beyond.

Yet, despite its importance, gaining consumers’ attention is becoming more and more difficult. In an attention economy, that’s become increasingly competitive, ‘content shock’ the incessant deluge of mediocre content that is blinding audiences to brands’ content efforts – means that content has to have genuine quality and relevance to achieve cut-through.

The rise of ad blocking software, the decrease in organic reach on social platforms such as Facebook and declining referral traffic for many brands are all signs that the bar for quality content has been raised. And this impression is backed up by data from Chartbeat and Buzzsumo that indicates that much of the content being produced is not being read, shared or linked to:

slide 7

Source: Chartbeat, 2016

The chart above indicates that there is no relationship between how much a piece of content is shared and the amount of attention an average reader will give that content.

slide 8

Source: Buzzsumo, 2016

The chart above shows that the vast majority of posts receive very few shares or links, two metrics that indicate proactive engagement.

Build your content plan around an anchor

Let’s consider a publication such as Wired. What is it about the content that Wired produces that keeps people reading and subscribing? Although Wired offers many different articles every month, there are often one or two stand-out features, as well as regular features, that grab people’s attention and keep them engaged.

This is also true for services like Netflix. Whilst there are hundreds, even thousands of different series and movies to choose from, it’s the flagship shows such as ‘House of Cards’‘Making a Murderer’ and ‘Orange is the New Black’ that gets people hooked and encourages them to keep on watching and, more importantly, subscribing every month.

These features are authoritative, data-driven and remarkable. They’re different from everything else and can be described as anchor content. Like a real anchor, this content has weight, substance and connects everything together.

The concept of anchor content was first explored by Eric Enge in his excellent post for Marketing Land in March. The methodology that works so well for Wired and Netflix can be applied by marketers and provides a useful framework for anyone involved in content planning across different channels.
The figures below illustrate the positive impact of anchor content on a regular email programme:

Anchor content in action (1)

The graph above shows the decrease in engagement over time once the initial buzz and interest of the campaign dies away. The content being produced (the green circles) is useful, relevant and seasonal, but without anything remarkable to spark interest the brand is left with dwindling engagement levels.

Anchor content in action (2)

The second graph, however, shows how the inclusion of anchor content (the orange circles), including key features and high-quality evergreen content, can boost engagement over time and keep the audience motivated to keep clicking through and reading. The brand has identified what resonates with the audience and has planned in advance where to include anchor content to maintain interest.

Three key principles of anchor content

The principles of anchor content are not new but they are useful for reminding ourselves and clients of what makes an effective content campaign. Three principles that stand out for me include:

1. Start with a weighty anchor

A piece of solid, authoritative anchor content can form the centre point of a campaign, from which less detailed, more supplemental content can be added.

In the email campaign example above, the spikes in engagement were the result of strong anchor content that introduced a theme for the quarter. In the following weeks and months, other pieces of supplemental content ‘riffed’ on the main theme, building on the interest the initial piece generated until the next quarter.

2. Quality beats quantity

An endless stream of ‘OK’ content is unlikely to have a positive impact. The days when large quantities of content could achieve results, particularly in search, have long gone as a result of advancements such as Google’s Panda algorithm update. Audiences are busy, distracted and have more choice than ever before so they expect better.

However, it’s impossible for everything to be ‘hero’ content, there just isn’t the time, resource or audience appetite. But that’s not the point of the anchor content approach. Instead, content planners should consider how different campaigns or programmes can be structured in a way that uses key features at certain points in time to anchor interest and generate buzz.

Some of this type of content was explored in our post on ‘10x content’.

3. Focus on what your audience finds fascinating

Data is you friend! With so many analytics tools and resources available, there’s really no excuse for not measuring activity to identify what is resonating with your audience.

Look at the trends and patterns between the different pieces of content that generate high and low levels of engagement. What is it about each that works well/ not so well? What can you take from the data and apply to your next piece of anchor content? This insight will help you to narrow down the content themes, formats and distribution channels that work.


The sheer deluge of content consumers receive today means that brands and marketers must work increasingly harder to achieve cut-through and generate engagement. The anchor content approach is based on the concept that specific pieces of high quality, authoritative content can be used as part of a new or existing campaign to spark interest and keep audiences engaged.

Anchor content is about producing content that stands out from the crowd to help you establish yourself in an increasingly noisy mediascape. The goal should not be about producing large quantities of content but creating content that is remarkable, adds value to those that are listening (i.e. not always the mass market) and is data-driven.

The politics of persuasion


The fallout of Britain’s decision to leave the EU following the referendum on the 23rd June has caused shockwaves around the world. The value of the pound has tumbled, markets have been in turmoil and other European countries are now calling for votes on independence of their own.

I’m not a professional forecaster or pundit (as evidenced by my dismal prediction that Remain would win by ten points!) so I won’t begin to attempt to dissect the reasons behind Britain’s decision to leave the EU. Many knowledgeable and informed experts will no doubt provide in-depth analysis over the coming days, weeks and months. However, I would like to address one aspect that I believe was crucial to the final result: persuasion.

Ancient tools in a modern world

In the construction of an argument, Aristotle described three models of persuasion:


The Remain campaign focused very heavily on facts, data and statistics, arguing that if Britain were to leave the EU the economy would be damaged, the cost of living would rise and even peace and national security would be at risk. Nine out of ten of the country’s top economists predicted that a vote to leave would be detrimental to the UK economy, whilst many business leaders voiced their concerns about negative growth and employment prospects.

In response to what some branded ‘Project Fear’, many commentators suggested that Leave had lost the economic argument, thus proving Bexit would not be a legitimate option for the UK. However, with their focus instead on immigration, border control and sovereignty, Leave crafted an argument that seemed to resonate and generate a groundswell of support.

Hearts and minds

In terms of ethos, both Remain and Leave leveraged personality and authority by recruiting politicians and celebrities who they believed would connect with the public and convey their respective messages.

However, whilst the Remain camp relied very much on logos and the rational reasons for staying within the EU to appeal to voters’ heads, Leave employed ethos and used emotional reasoning to appeal to voters’ hearts. The emotive issue of immigration and the impactful slogan of ‘Take Back Control’ struck a chord with many people to create a momentum that resulted in the vast majority of districts across England outside of London opting to leave the EU.

In his book ‘Start With Why’, Simon Sinek argues that business and political leaders that communicate using emotional messaging are often more successful because biology is on their side:

The newest part of the homosapien brain, the neocortex, is responsible for all of our rational and analytical thought and language. The Limbic system, on the other hand, is responsible for all of our feelings, such as trust and loyalty. It’s also responsible for all human behaviour, all decision-making and has no capacity for language.

By communicating on an emotional level we can talk directly to the part of the brain that controls behaviour. This is where ‘gut’ decisions come from. Despite all the facts and figures thrown at people, sometimes they still ‘go with their gut’ if it doesn’t feel right. I would argue that the Leave campaign were more successful at articulating a message that triggered people’s emotions around the key issues of immigration, sovereignty and control. Regardless of all the facts and figures Remain used to try and convince voters about the risks, clearly many people’s feelings outweighed anything the experts were telling them otherwise.

History and behavioural science indicated that in such a close fought referendum the status who would prevail. But as the final outcome proved, the status quo was trumped by an alternative vision that clearly inspired over 17 million people to go out to the polls and cast their vote that Britain’s future should no longer be within the EU.